Information Technology Management and Strategy National and organizational culture affects planning, governance, and perceptions of service quality. For example, having planning cultures at the top levels of an organization typically signal that strategic systems investment is important. At Adidas, a multinational sports apparel company headquartered in Germany, national culture played a role in its multisourcing strategy. Adidas’ managers selected an Eastern European vendor because they were looking for a provider whose culture was similar to their own. They thought that vendor’s employees were more likely to question system requirements and to make creative, innovative contributions than the Indian vendors they had hired.17
National Cultural Dimensions and Their Application One of the best‐known (and prolific) researchers in the area of differences in the values across national cultures is Geert Hofstede. Most studies about the impact of national cultures on IS have used Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. Hofstede18 originally identified four major dimensions of national culture: power distance,
17 Martin Wiener and Carol Saunders, “Forced Coopetition in IT Multi‐Sourcing,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems 23, no. 3 (2014), 210–25. 18 G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work‐Related Values (London: Sage, 1980).
c03.indd 68 11/26/2015 6:22:14 PM
69Information Systems and Culture
uncertainty avoidance, individualism‐collectivism, and masculinity‐femininity.19 To correct for a possible bias toward Western values, a new dimension, Confucian work dynamism, also referred to “short‐term vs. long‐term orientation,” was added.20 Many others have used, built upon, or tried to correct problems related to Hofst- ede’s four dimensions. One notable project is the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) research program, which is a team of 150 researchers who have collected data on cultural values and practices and leadership attributes from over 18,000 managers in 62 countries. The GLOBE project has uncov- ered nine cultural dimensions, six of which have their origins in Hofstede’s pioneering work. The Hofstede dimensions and their relationship to the GLOBE dimensions are summarized in Figure 3.6.
19 Ibid. 20 G. Hofstede and M. H. Bond, “The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth,” Organizational Dynamics 16 (1988), 4021.
FIGURE 3.6 National cultural dimensions.
Hofstede Dimensions (Related GLOBE Dimensions)
Descriptiona Examples of Effect on ITb
Uncertainty Avoidance (Uncertainty Avoidance)
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.