Assignment: Investment for Professionals
Assignment: Investment for Professionals
Measuring Return on Investment for Professional Development Activities 2018 Updates
Cathleen Opperman, DNP, RN, NEA-BC, CPN ƒ Debra Liebig, MLA, BSN, RN-BC ƒ Judith Bowling, PhD, MHA, RN-BC ƒ Carol Susan Johnson, PhD, RN-BC, NE-BC
What is the return on investment for the time and resources
spent for professional development activities? This is an
update of the two articles published in 2016, which reviewed
literature and demonstrated how financial analysis of
educational activities can drive decision-making. Professional
development activities are routinely planned based on needs
assessments, implemented with evidence-based learning
modalities, and evaluated for effectiveness through linkage to
outcomes. The next level of evaluation is consideration of the
economic impact of professional development activities. This
article includes a review of themost recent studies that provide
cost of educational interventions along with a description of
economic outcomes and an update to the ‘‘Known Costs of
A s nursing professional development (NPD)practitioners, we are challenged by the question‘‘What is the return on investment (ROI) for pro- fessional development activities?’’ As described in Part I of this series, NPD practitioners are often the first to be called when a problem exists and among the first to have funding restricted when budgets are tight. Program eval- uation models, a summary of the literature reporting on ROI for professional development activities, and the ‘‘Known Costs of Outcomes Table’’ were included in this first article (Opperman, Liebig, Bowling, Johnson, &Harper, 2016a). The second article added ‘‘how to’’ calculate finan-
cial impact with scenario examples, including simple cost analysis, benefitYcost ratios, cost-effectiveness analysis, and ROI (Opperman, Liebig, Bowling, Johnson, & Harper, 2016b). Through examples of various-sized educational programs, it was demonstrated how an NPD practitioner can use these calculations for decision-making.
INTRODUCTION This article builds on the themes of the prior two articles on ROI. Following these publications, presentations at the Annual ANPD Conventions, and numerous webinars, re- quests were received for updating the literature search and the tables on the Known Costs of Outcomes Table. These requests led to this article. This article will describe the recent literature including four articles having educa- tional interventions with reported outcomes and financial impact published between 2014 and 2018. Following the literature review, the updated Known Costs of Outcomes Table lists the economic impact of a variety of conditions.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.