Assignment: Symbols in Art Craft
Assignment: Symbols in Art Craft
When specifying reward metrics, managers must be careful because they tend to drive the behavior they specify. For example, call center agents who know they will be evaluated only by the volume of calls they process may rush callers and provide poorer service in order to maximize their performance according to the narrow metric. Those measured only by customer satisfaction might spend more time than necessary on each call and perhaps try end- lessly to solve problems that should be routed to more technical personnel.
Information Systems and Culture The third managerial lever of organizational strategy is culture. Culture plays an increasingly important role in information system management and use. Because information systems management and use are complicated by human factors, it is important to consider culture’s impact. Culture is defined as the set of “shared values and beliefs” that a group holds and that determines how the group perceives, thinks about, and appropriately reacts to its various environments.12
A “collective programming of the mind” distinguishes not only societies (or nations) but also industries, profes- sions, and organizations.13 Beliefs are the perceptions that people hold about how things are done in their community whereas values reflect the community’s aspirations about the way things should be done. Culture is something of a moving target because it evolves over time as the group solves problems adapting to the environment and internal operations.
Culture has been compared to an iceberg because, like an iceberg, only part of the culture is visible from the surface. In fact, it is necessary to look below the surface to understand the deep‐rooted aspects of culture that are not visible. That is, culture may be thought of in terms of layers: observable artifacts, values, and assumptions. Observable artifacts are the most visible level. They include such physical manifestations as type of dress, sym- bols in art, acronyms, awards, myths and stories told about the group, rituals, and ceremonies. Espoused values are the explicitly stated preferred organizational values. Ideally, they should be consistent with the enacted values, which are the values and norms that are actually exhibited or displayed in employee behavior. For example, if an organization says that it believes in a good work–life balance for its employees but actually requires them to work 12‐hour days and on weekends, the enacted values don’t match with the espoused ones. The deepest layer of culture is the underlying assumption layer, or the fundamental part of every culture that helps discern what is real
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.