2 PART QUESTION
please prepare a SHORT response TO BOTH PARTS OF the following attached file
According to Chanen and colleagues (2020), like other mental disorders, borderline personality
disorder has an onset between puberty and emerging adulthood. “Borderline personality
disorder is an illness marked by an ongoing pattern of varying moods, self-image, and
behavior.” (NIMH, 2017, para 1). People with borderline personality disorder are subject to
bouts of anger and depression that can range from a few hours to days (NIMH, 2017; Chanen
et al., 2020). It is often overlooked in young people and dismissed as part of their
developmental process (Chanen et al., 2020).
People with borderline personality disorder tend to see the world in extremes. Abandonment is
a genuine concern for them; in addition, they have a distorted sense of self. They are subject to
reckless behavior and substance abuse (NIMH, 2017; Chanen et al., 2020). “Borderline
personality disorder has historically been viewed as difficult to treat.” (NIMH, 2017, para 21).
Psychotherapy is the primary treatment for those affected by the disorder. Medication is not
initially used but is later introduced to help offset mood swings, depression, and other possible
mental health issues (NIMH, 2017).
“Structured psychological interventions have consistently demonstrated clinically significant
improvements among young people with borderline features or BPD.” (Chanen et al., 2020, p.
25). This disorder requires everyone in the person’s life to play their part to help the person
lead a healthier life.
People with DPD are described as overly clingy, dependent, insecure, indecisive, and unable to
regulate their emotions on their own. They tend to be submissive, and easily end up in
relationships where they become emotionally or physically abused (Simonelli & Parolin, 2017).
They are also at higher risk for other mental illnesses- “DPD is often comorbid with eating
disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatization disorders”, as well as depression, phobias,
OCD, and alcohol and substance abuse (Simonelli & Parolin, 2017.p.9; Faith, 2009).
There are varying theories for the etiology of DPD. Psychoanalytic theory proposed that fixation
at the oral stage due to either frustration or over-gratification of breastfeeding led to overly
dependent adults. Attachment theorists proposed that either authoritarian style or overly
protective style of parenting could lead to dependent disorders. Social learning and behavioral
theories believed that dependency was reinforced through learning, as children are taught to
rely on authority figures for guidance, and learn behaviors which produce the desired response
(Simonelli & Parolin, 2017; Faith, 2009). Early exposure to traumatic experiences such as
neglect or abuse increase the likelihood of developing DSD later in life, and women are 40%
more likely to be diagnosed with DSD as men (Simonelli & Parolin, 2017.p.7).
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