Discuss the ways in which animals use signals to communicate to receivers (other animals), the context in which these communications are sent and received, and their function.

Essay #3

Assignment Instructions

Due 5pm, June 17, 2022


Write two essays 1000 words each essay (2000 words minimum total; no upper word limit). Each essay is worth 50 points.


Film clips: Select and watch two of the short films listed below (each film is approximately 8 minutes in length) related to the two essay topics you choose to write about.


Sources: Find, read, and use the information from a minimum of four peer-reviewed journal articles (two peer-reviewed journal articles per essay) to provide supportive evidence in writing your essays. You can also use your textbook as a source for these essays in addition to the peer-reviewed journal articles.


Essay Topics: Choose two of the topics below to answer in the two separate essays:


1). Discuss the ways in which animals use signals to communicate to receivers (other animals), the context in which these communications are sent and received, and their function.


2). Discuss how maternal care and early life experiences influence offspring survival.


3). Discuss female mate choice in the context of male decoy behavior and two other male strategies designed to attract females.


4). What is special about monogamous mate pairing? Discuss this topic in three species of nonhuman animals.


5). Under what conditions do mutualistic behaviors such as food provisioning and food sharing occur, and how do these impact survival?


6). When foraging, how do animals sample information to know where to find food sites again, and how do they communicate that information to other animals (information transfer)?


7). What is the function of play behavior? Discuss the functional role of three types of play expressed and exhibited by at least two different species (not humans).


8). What factors most strongly influence the life history of animals, particularly when young (as offspring)?



  • Please make sure to submit the two essays on Canvas as 1 Word docx file.
  • Make sure to have a page break between each essay.
  • Give each essay a title.
  • Use APA format for citations and references for each essay separately.
  • No quotes are permitted.
  • No website material is permitted.
  • Use full grammatical sentences.
  • Use double-spacing.
  • No late essays will be accepted unless there are exceptional circumstances, and at the discretion of Dr. Dolins. This must be requested before the due date; no requests accepted on the due date.



Early Life Adversity and Temperament Impact Quality of Social Interactions:

Film #1:

Sam K. Patterson, Shirley C. Strum, Joan B. Silk


Early life adversity affects sociality and interaction style in wild female olive baboons.





Female Mate Choice and Male Decoy/Female Sentinels:

Film #2:

John B. Phillips


Revisiting the question of whether displaying males reduce nest predation in lek breeding birds?





Mutual Food Provisioning and Symbiosis in Two Marine Species:

Film #3:

Satoshi Awata, Ayano Kitaguchi, Katsumi Yokota, Taichi Yamada, Shun Satoh, Masanori Kohda


Testing a “mutual food-provisioning hypothesis” in a goby-shrimp symbiosis.





Monogamous Behavior Compared Between Coyotes (Canid species), Rodents, and Primates:

Film #4:

Alexandra Turano, Julie K. Young, Sara M. Freeman


Using a Partner Preference Test to Quantify Monogamous Behavior in Captive Coyotes.





Selection and plasticity play important roles in coupling new signals with receiver responses:

Film #5:

E Dale Broder, Aaron W Wikle, Sam M McCammant, James H Gallagher, Robin M Tinghitella


Evolution and plasticity of a newly discovered drumming behavior in Pacific Field Crickets.



Does Information Sampling in a Changing Environment Predict Survival?:

Film #6:

Elène Haave-Audet, Kimberley J. Mathot


The More You Know: Sampling out of necessity and as a luxury in black-capped chickadees.





Object Play and the Role of Self-Handicapping: A method for developing resiliency?:

Film #7:

Jackson R. Ham, Malin R. Miller, Sergio M. Pellis, Heather M. Manitzas Hill


Making Play Difficult: Self-Handicapping in Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).



How do honeybees communicate the locations of new food sources?

Film #8:

Georgia Tech College of Computing


The Waggle Dance of the Honeybee.





Comparing Two Species Communicative Modes with Humans – Pigs and Dogs:

Film #9:

Paula Pérez Fraga, Boglárka Morvai, Linda Gerencsér, Fanni Lehoczki, Attila Andics


Pigs’ and dogs’ human-oriented communicative behaviors in the presence of an out-of-reach reward.





Maternal Care and Style:

Film #10:

Gisela Sobral, Marina de Lara Telles, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira

Are all howler monkey mothers the same?






Associations Between Maternal Nurturing Behavior, Life History Strategies, and Oxytocin Levels in Wild Chimpanzees:

Film #11:

Patrick Tkaczynski, Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Virgile Manin, Liran Samuni, Tobias Deschner, Roman Wittig, Catherine Crockford


Maternal nurturing behavior, life history, and urinary oxytocin in wild chimpanzees.





Do females take part in intergroup encounters to gain access to food, and do males take part to gain access to mates by direct or indirect mate defense or by attraction via infanticide?

Film #12:

Florence Landry and Julie Teichroeb


Male and female strategies during inter-unit interactions in a band of Colobus monkeys.





How One Parent Can Influence the Survival of Offspring:

Film #13:

Alba T. Garcia de la Chica, Carola Borries, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque


Loss of the father, not the mother, reduces infant survival in pair-living, monogamous owl monkeys.




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