Discussion: Advance Nursing Theory
Discussion: Advance Nursing Theory
Fourth, it is the most holistic and multidimensional the- ory to discover specific and multifaceted culturally based care meanings and practices. Fifth, it is the first nursing focused on discovering global cultural care diversities (differences) and care universalities (commonalties). Sixth, it is the first nurs- ing theory with a specifically designed research method (ethnonursing) to fit the theory. Seventh, it has both abstract and practical features in addition to three action modes for delivering culturally congruent care. Finally, it is the first the- ory focused ongeneric(emic) andprofessional(etic) culture care, data related to worldview, social structure factors, and
ethnohistory in diverse environmental contexts. These are unique contributions related to study and use of the theory.
Major Philosophical Roots of the Theory
The philosophical roots of the theory are from the theo- rist’s extensive and diverse nursing experiences, anthropolog- ical insights, life experiences, values, and creative thinking. My firm belief in God’s creative and caring ways has always been important to me. Preparation in philosophy, religion, education, nursing, anthropology, biological sciences, and related areas influenced my holistic and comprehensive view of humans. And as the first graduate professional nurse to pursue a PhD in anthropology with the desire to advance nurs- ing theory, I saw great potential for developing relationships between nursing and anthropology and expanding the preva- lent mind-body medical and nursing views. Comparative care meanings, expressions, symbols, and practices of different cultures were powerful new ways to practice nursing. Theo- rizing about the culture and care relationships as a new disci- pline focus was intellectually exciting to me. Interestingly, anthropologists had not studied care in health and illness when I began the theory in the 1950s.
In developing the theory, a major hurdle for nurses was to discover culture care meanings, practices, and factors influ- encing care by religion, politics, economics, worldview, environment, cultural values, history, language, gender, and others. These factors needed to be included for culturally competent care. Hence, the Sunrise Model (see Figure 1) was created (Leininger, 1997). The model isnot the theory per se but depicts factors influencing care.
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