Discussion: Decision Cycle Framework

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Discussion: Decision Cycle Framework

Discussion: Decision Cycle Framework

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xii Contents

Discussion Questions 120 Case Study 5‐1 Santa Cruz Bicycles 121 Case Study 5‐2 Boeing 787 Dreamliner 122

6 Architecture and Infrastructure 124

From Vision to Implementation 125 The Leap from Strategy to Architecture to Infrastructure 126 From Strategy to Architecture to Infrastructure: An Example 133 Architectural Principles 135 Enterprise Architecture 136 Virtualization and Cloud Computing 137 Other Managerial Considerations 139 Social Business Lens: Building Social Mobile Applications 143 Summary 144 Key Terms 144 Discussion Questions 145 Case Study 6‐1 Enterprise Architecture at American Express 145 Case Study 6‐2 The Case of Extreme Scientists 146

7 Security 147

IT Security Decision Framework 149 Breaches and How They Occurred 151 The Impossibility of 100% Security 154 What Should Management Do? 155 Summary 162 Key Terms 163 Discussion Questions 163 Case Study 7-1 The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) 163 Case Study 7-2 Sony Pictures: The Criminals Won 164

8 The Business of Information Technology 165

Organizing to Respond to Business: A Maturity Model 167 Understanding the IT Organization 168 What a Manager Can Expect from the IT Organization 168 What the IT Organization Does Not Do 170 Chief Information Officer 171 Building a Business Case 173 IT Portfolio Management 175 Valuing IT Investments 176 Monitoring IT Investments 177 Funding IT Resources 182 How Much Does IT Cost? 184 Summary 187

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Key Terms 188 Discussion Questions 188 Case Study 8‐1 KLM Airlines 189 Case Study 8‐2 Balanced Scorecards at BIOCO 190

9 Governance of the Information Systems Organization 191

IT Governance 192 Decision‐Making Mechanisms 199 Governance Frameworks for Control Decisions 200 Social Business Lens: Governing the Content 204 Summary 205 Key Terms 205 Discussion Questions 205 Case Study 9‐1 IT Governance at University of the Southeast 205 Case Study 9‐2 The “MyJohnDeere” Platform 207

10 Information Systems Sourcing 208

Sourcing Decision Cycle Framework 209 Social Business Lens: Crowdsourcing 214 Geographic Lens: Corporate Social Responsibility 220 Outsourcing in the Broader Context 224 Summary 225 Key Terms 225 Discussion Questions 225 Case Study 10‐1 Crowdsourcing at AOL 225 Case Study 10‐2 Altia Business Park 226

11 Managing IT Projects 228

What Defines a Project? 230 What Is Project Management? 231 Organizing for Project Management 232 Project Elements 233 IT Projects 239 IT Project Development Methodologies and Approaches 240 Social Business Lens: Mashups 247 Managing IT Project Risk 247 Summary 253 Key Terms 254 Discussion Questions 254 Case Study 11‐1 Implementing Enterprise Change Management at Southern Company 254 Case Study 11‐2 Dealing with Traffic Jams in London 255

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