Discussion: Few Theoretical Premises

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Discussion: Few Theoretical Premises

Discussion: Few Theoretical Premises

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If nurses use the model with the theory, they will discover factors related to cultural stresses, pain, racial biases, and even destructive acts as nontherapeutic to clients. One can also reduce and prevent violence in the workplace, anger, and noncompliance with data findings from the model when used with the three prescribed modes of action (Leininger, 1991, 1997, 2002). And because nurses are the largest group of health care providers, a significant difference in quality care and preventing legal suits can occur. The model used in con- junction with the theory is a powerful means for new knowl- edge and practices in health care contexts.


The central purposeof the theory is to discover and explain diverse and universal culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness, or death of indi- viduals or groups. Thepurposeandgoalof the theory is to use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. The three modes for congruent care, decisions, and actions pro- posed in the theory are predicted to lead to health and well- being, or to face illness and death.

Definition of Terms

Due to space limitations, the definition of terms can be studied in other sources, which are cited in the reference list at the end of this article.


Due to restricted space, only a few theoretical premises (or “givens”) are presented as examples, with others found in author’s theory references (Leininger, 1991, 1997).


FIGURE 1. Leininger’s Sunrise Model to Depict Dimensions of the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality.
1. Care is the essence of nursing and a distinct, dominant, cen- tral, and unifying focus.

2. Culturally based care (caring) is essential for well-being, health, growth, survival, and in facing handicaps or death.

3. Culturally based care is the most comprehensive, holistic, and particularistic means to know, explain, interpret, and predict beneficial congruent care practices.

4. Culturally based caring is essential to curing and healing, as there can be no curing without caring, although caring can oc- cur without curing.

5. Culture care concepts, meanings, expressions, patterns, pro- cesses, and structural forms vary transculturally, with diversi- ties (differences) and some universalities (commonalties).


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