Discussion: Participation and Reflection Enabler

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Discussion: Participation and Reflection Enabler

Discussion: Participation and Reflection Enabler

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Four major tenets were formulated to systematically examine the theory with the researcher’s stated domain of inquiry (DOI) and the ethnonursing method. An example of a DOI would be “the study of care meanings, values, and expressions of Mexican rural families with cancer.” Every word in this DOI is studied in-depth using the four theory ten- ets, which are (a) culturally based care has diversities (differ- ences or variabilities) and some universal (common) features; (b) worldview, cultural, and social structure factors and others in the Sunrise Model influence care outcomes related to cul- turally congruent care;

(c) genericemic(lay, folk, or indige- nous) practices and professionaleticnursing practices influ- ence care practice outcomes; (d) the three predicted theoreti- cal modes for transcultural care actions and decisions are, namely, culture care preservation and/or maintenance, cul- ture care accommodation and/or negotiation, and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring to provide culturally con- gruent and beneficial care. Besides the Sunrise Model, other ethnonursing enablers are used to rigorously examine the the- ory tenets.


The ethnonursing research method was specifically designed by the theorist to provide in-depth study of the domain of inquiry. Covert and embedded care and culture data could be teased out with the enablers. Although other nurse theorists were borrowing quantitative methods and tools, I found that these modes failed to tap rich and meaning- ful emic and etic data and that cultural care beliefs and lifeways could not be manipulated and measured meaning- fully. The five enablers that I developed are, as follows: (a) Sunrise Model Enabler, (b) Stranger to Trusted Friend Enabler, (c) the Observation, Participation, and Reflection Enabler, (d) the Researcher’s Domain of Inquiry (DOI) Enabler, and (e) the Acculturation Enabler (Leininger, 1991, pp. 139-142; Leininger, 1997, pp. 38, 45-47). The concept of enablers was new in the 1960s but most valuable in teasing out vague ideas.

Because the Sunrise Model Enabler is so frequently requested by nurses for health care assessments, a brief

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