Discussion: Pre-industrial Societies
Discussion: Pre-industrial Societies
technology’s role in alternative work arrangements, “Technology drives workplace flexibility. . . . Technology has become a strategic competency that drives revenue growth. It’s not just about enabling productivity.”3
How has BlueWork impacted the staff? In addition to the productivity improvements and savings in office expense, overall employee satisfaction is up. American Express managers are happy with these arrangements too. They have found employees to be more engaged while working, more committed to the company, and better able to drive needed results.4 American Express has clearly adopted one of the most accommodating approaches to work hours, but many employers allow their employees some flexibility in their work schedule. A third or more of IBM, Aetna, and AT&T employees have no official desks at the company. Communications giant Cisco, which has over 75,000 employees on six continents, uses technology‐enabled flexible work practices such as telecommuting, remote work, and flex time.5 Sun Microsystems Inc. calculates that it has saved over $400 million in real estate costs by allowing nearly half of its employees to work anywhere they want.6 Even the U.S. Government has a flexible work program, Flexiwork, that enables eligible employees to do their job under alternative work arrangements such as work from home.7
The American Express example illustrates how the nature of work has changed—and information technology is supporting, if not propelling, the changes. In preindustrial societies, work was seamlessly interwoven into everyday life. Activities all revolved around nature’s cyclical rhythms (i.e., the season, day, and night; the pangs of hunger) and the necessities of living. The Industrial Revolution changed this. With the practice of dividing time into mea- surable, homogeneous units for which they could be paid, people started to separate work from other spheres of life. Their workday was distinguished from family, community, and leisure time by punching a time clock or responding to the blast of a factory whistle. Work was also separated into space as well as time as people went to a particular place to work.8
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.