Discussion: Transcultural Nursing.
Discussion: Transcultural Nursing.
mary on its use is offered. One usually begins with a focus on an individual or small group and wherever one wishes and is comfortable with the model. Some nurses begin with a focus on generic and professional care, whereas others start at the top of the model with worldview, spiritual, family, political, and other areas. What is most crucial is listening with a very open mind to the informant, learning from them, and not imposing your ideas. One checks and rechecks ideas for accu- racy as one uses the enablers with informants.
The Observation-Participation Reflection Enabler is very important in obtaining holistic, specific, and accurate data. All data from the top and middle of the Sunrise Model are reflected on with the three modes of decisions and actions to arrive at culturally congruent care (bottom part of model). All data collected is thoughtfully examined with the author’s six qualitative criteria: credibility, confirmability, meaning-in- context, recurrent patterning, saturation, and transferability (Leininger, 1995, 1997). Specific evidence that these criteria are met is essential to substantiate or refute the domain of inquiry and the theory.
In sum, the Culture Care theory has been a major and sig- nificant contribution to establish and maintain the discipline of transcultural nursing discipline over the past five decades. The holistic and particularistic features and the ethnonursing method have led to a new body of knowledge about culture and care phenomena. Today, nurses are becoming sensitive to and knowledgeable about cultural differences and similarities in people’s care. A wealth of rich research findings, however, has yet to be woven into practice, education, and administra- tion. Transcultural knowledge is also being used by other dis- ciplines today. Many users of the theory find it most meaning- ful and timely as our world becomes increasingly global and complex, requiring realistic and sensitive understanding of people.
Leininger, M. (1978).Transcultural nursing. Thorofare, NJ: Slack. (Reprinted in 1994 by Greyden Press, Columbus, OH)
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.