Discussion: Transmission of Control
Discussion: Transmission of Control
Modern organizations often face the challenge of managing a workforce that is spread across the world in iso- lation from direct supervision and working mostly in teams. Sales work is one area in which we see this. Rather than working in a central offi ce, external salespeople work remotely, relying on laptop computers, smart phones, the Web and apps linking them to customers, offi ce colleagues, sales support information, and other databases. The technical complexity of some products, such as enterprise software, necessitates a team‐based sales approach combining the expertise of many individuals, and technologies connect the team together.
Modern organizations must also choose among three types of formal controls to ensure that work is done properly. 25 Behavior controls involve direct monitoring and supervision of employee actions while the work is being done. Vivid depictions of behavior controls are provided in road construction projects that have one employee dig- ging and another watching, motionless with arms folded. On the other hand, outcome controls involve examining work outcomes rather than work actions. Finally, personnel controls represent a proper fi t between the person and the job, often involving picking the right person for the task.
Social Business Lens: Activity Streams An activity stream is a list of activities on a Web site that briefl y highlight what the individuals connected to that stream are doing. Activity streams can include posts by individuals who share what they are doing or thinking and posts directly by other programs, which deposit an update about what an individual is doing. By collecting all of these posts in a single feed, the activity stream gives a reader a good sense of what is happening in a community.
Examples of activity streams are Facebook ’ s news feed and Salesforce.com ’ s Chatter. Companies that incor- porate activity streams in their social business platform report that teams using that technology had fewer face‐to‐ face meetings, reduced e‐mail, faster information fl ows, better collaboration, and increased responsiveness. An activity stream can keep staff updated on the happenings around an organization. For example, SAS , the interna- tional statistics and analytics software company, implemented an activity stream for its employees. Staff were able to keep track of what others were working on over an activity stream that mimicked the news feed that Facebook users see on their home page. Staff could share, comment on, or “like” pages and documents they found in their systems or on the Web and those entries would show up in the activity stream.
Source: David F. Carr , “ SAS Creates Internal Facebook with Socialcast ” (April 29, 2011 ), http://www.informationweek.com/ thebrainyard/news/social_networking_private_platforms/229402527/sas‐institute‐creates‐internal‐facebook‐with‐socialcast (accessed on April 5, 2012) .
24 For additional information on SmallBlue, see http://www.watson.ibm.com/cambridge/Projects/project8.shtml (accessed May 31, 2015). 25 L. J. Kirsch , “ Portfolios of Control Modes and IS Project Management ,” Information Systems Research 8 , no. 3 ( 1997 ), 215 – 239 ; W. G. Ouchi , “ The Transmission of Control through Organizational Hierarchy ,” Academy of Management Journal 21 , no. 2 ( 1978 ), 173 – 92 ; K. A. Merchant , Modern Management Control Systems, Text and Cases ( Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice‐Hall , 1998 ).
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.