Find and read four articles in peer-reviewed journals. Two should be about the helping relationship, the working alliance, or empirically supported relationships. One should be about empathy, and one should be about a theoretical orientation of your choice. You will refer to these articles in upcoming unit discussions. Based on evidence from your readings in the text, the four articles you found, and any other resources you have available, discuss what you think are the most important aspects of the counseling relationship. Be sure to reference all your resources. Explain how your favorite theoretical orientation or orientations influence the way you view the counseling relationship. (See the list of theoretical orientations) Behavioral Orientation: This orientation developed from basic learning principles, primarily reinforcement theory from the work that B. F. Skinner and John. B. Watson developed to discover the role of the environment on behavior. This orientation is also concerned with the objective measurement of behavior, reinforcement, and change. Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic Orientation: This orientation has its roots in psychoanalytic theory according to Sigmond Freuds work with the unconscious mind. He recognized that much of what explains behavior is hidden from the person and the outside world and it has meaning. He also recognized the important influences that early childhood experiences have on the mind and who the person becomes as an adult. Humanistic/Existential Orientation: This orientation is founded on the beliefs that humans are inherently good, are unique, autonomous, and have free will. It also includes existential beliefs about having only the here and now, whether we have a purpose, and do we walk through life alone. Two of the more famous people in this school of thought were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Cognitive Orientation: This orientation focuses on thinking and mental processes. In this orientation, an individual uses mental processes such as problem-solving, decision making, and memory, to act and interact with the environment. Jean Piaget was an early thinker in cognitive psychology. Socio-Cultural Orientation: This orientation looks at behavior as an outcome of ones family and cultural beliefs and values. These beliefs and values have meaning and people who make up families and cultures have strong influences on the individual to behave in certain ways or suffer some kind of consequence. A consequence could range from being criticized to being ostracized to being physically hurt or even killed for going outside the norms. This orientation includes such aspects of human behavior as language acquisition and use, health issues, and coping. An early contributor might be Vygotsky.
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