Estar Conjugation: Free Spanish Lesson and Exercises

Estar is one of the most common verbs in the Spanish language. It’s one of the translations of the verb “to be” in English, so it’s actually really important to understand how the estar conjugation works in Spanish.

If you have been studying Spanish for a while, you know that conjugations in this language can be quite a challenge. With three moods, six subjects, irregular verbs, and plenty of tenses, learning all the possible conjugations sometimes feels like a massive undertaking.

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In all honesty, it’s not like that. Yes, there are a lot of conjugations, but they are not hard to learn once you understand their logic.Estar Conjugation: Free Spanish Lesson and Exercises

The Spanish Verb Estar

Even though estar translates as “to be”, it’s helpful to think of this verb as an action that expresses a status or condition. It usually refers to temporary states that will probably change in the near future. (Get a better understanding of when it’s appropriate to use estar.)

Here at Essaywriters.com, we have discussed estar at length—both its characteristics and its unique relationship with another Spanish verb: ser. Now it’s the time to focus on the estar conjugations.

Estar : An Irregular Verb

One of the peculiarities of the verb estar is that it’s an irregular verb. This means that it doesn’t follow the same pattern as most verbs in Spanish. It has its own set of conjugations and that’s why it’s so important to study them.

Estar is an irregular yo verb, which means that the first person singular is the one that suffers the big change in conjugation compared to regular verbs. As irregular as estar is, it follows the same pattern of conjugation as two other important Spanish verbs: ir (to go) and dar (to give).

Subject Estar (to be) Ir (to go) Dar (to give)
yo am voy doy
you are vas the
he she it is va and
us we’re we will we give
your is it so van and
they is it so van and

to be

In Spanish, there are three different moods and many more tenses. On one hand, you have the indicative, the subjunctive, and the imperative mood. On the other, you have a series of present, past, and future tenses that we’ll see below.

The key to mastering the estar conjugation, or any other irregular verb set of conjugations, resides in understanding what each mood and tense allows you to express. Then, at least for irregular verbs, there is no other solution but to memorize the conjugations and start practicing with them as much as possible. This way, you will stop trying to remember which conjugation to use, and it will come naturally to you. Estar Conjugation: Free Spanish Lesson and Exercises

However, before starting with the proper estar conjugation let’s see its verbals.

Being Verbal

Verbals are words derived from a verb that work as nouns or modifiers in sentences. In Spanish, there are three verbals: infinitive, gerund, and participle. It’s important to remember that verbals aren’t conjugated according to person, number, and tense.

Verbal Example English
Infinitive estar (to be) It had to be here.  I had to be here.
Gerund being I hurt myself while asleep.  I hurt myself while (being) asleep.
Participle state _ Have you been to Guatemala? Have you been to Guatemala?

Estar Conjugation: Indicative Mood

The indicative mood in Spanish has 10 different tenses divided into simple and compound. The latter tenses include the auxiliary verb haber (to have).

Estar Conjugation: Simple Tenses of the Indicative Mood

Subject Present Preterite Imperfect  Conditional Future
(am/is/are) (was/were) (was/were) (would be) (will be)
yo am  was I was It would I will be
you are you were you were would you be you will be
he she it is he was I was It would will be
us we’re we were we were we would be will be
your is it so they were They were they would be will be
they is it so they were They were they would be will be

Estar Conjugation: Compound Tenses of the Indicative Mood

Subject Present Perfect Preterite Perfect Past Perfect (Pluperfect)  Conditional Perfect Future Perfect
(have/has been) (had been) (had been) (would have been) (will have been)
yo I’ve been I have been had been would have been had been
you you have been you were in the state you had been you would have been you will have been
he she has been had been had been would have been will have been
us We have been we had been we had been we would have been we will have been
your they have been they had been they had been they would have been they will have been
they they have been they had been they had been they would have been they will have been

Estar Conjugation: Subjunctive Mood

In Spanish, the subjunctive mood has six tenses, three simple and three compound. However, the imperfect has two conjugations, which brings our total subjunctive estar conjugations to  eight:

Estar Conjugation: Simple Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood

Subject Present Imperfect Imperfect 2 Future
yo East were was I was
you be were you you were you were
he she East were was I was
us we are we were we were we will be
your be were were were
they be were were were

Estar Conjugation: Compound Tenses of the Subjunctive Mood

Subject Present Perfect Past Perfect (Pluperfect) Past Perfect 2 (Pluperfect 2) Future Perfect
yo have been I had been he had been would have been
you you have been you would have been you would have been you would have been
he she have been I had been he had been would have been
us we have been we would have been we would have been we would have been
your have been they would have been they would have been they had been
they have been they would have been they would have been they had been

Estar Conjugation: Exercises

Fill in the blank using the right conjugation of estar:

  1. ________________ ready for tomorrow’s game. – I’ll be ready for tomorrow’s game.
  2.  ¿ Dónde ________________ ? – Where have you been?
  3. Nunca _______________ en Argentina antes. – I had never been in Argentina before.
  4. Hopefully _____________ here when this is over. – I wish you would be here when this is over.
  5.  Si ________________ presentes, nos entenderían. – If you all had been present, you would understand us.
  6. ________________ willing to go on a trip with me?- Would you be willing to go on a trip with me?
  7. ________________ silent until he returns.- Let’s stay quiet until he comes back.
  8.  If _______________ everything would be easier here.- If you were here, everything would be easier.
  9.  ________________ en casa. – I was at home.
  10. My brothers _____________ very angry with me.- My brothers are really mad at me.
  1. I will be
  2. you have been
  3. had been
  4. be
  5. they would have been
  6. would you be 
  7. let’s be
  8. were you
  9. I was
  10. is it so

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