History of Gangs in the United States Paper Help

1800

Gangs are thought to have first emerged in America in the late 1700s and the early 1800s. These gangs did not commit any serious offenses and generally consisted of few members. The gangs found amusement in “breaking windows and demolishing taverns. They also fought among themselves dressed in colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions” (Pearson, 1983). Territorial wars were also common.

1900

In the 1900s, gangs began to thrive in large cities due to the arrival of African and Mexican immigrants en-masse. Their growth was also spurned by the arrival of Poles, Italians, and Jews in New York City between 1880 and 1920. Gangs became more violent and could even be hired to perform various services, including punching ($2), nose and jawbone-breaking ($10), breaking legs or arms ($19), shooting in the leg ($25), and “doing the big job” ($100 and up) (Sante, 1991; Valdez, 2007). The gangs also terrorized streets, particularly in New York.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
History of Gangs in the United States Paper Help
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

1950

Gangs continued to grow in number strengthened by Latino immigrant groups moving into cities, especially in the South Bronx and Brooklyn. Black gangs also increased in number. Interracial conflicts became common with white male gangs violently resisting racial integration. Black gangs evolved into social protection groups to protect their interests.

1960

The construction of high-rise public buildings across the country that had begun from 1940 to the mid-1960s encouraged segregation among communities in various cities. The gangs engaged in systematic and widespread violence and extortion. Large gangs with thousands of members emerged during this time and this increased the scope of their criminal activities (Sullivan, 2006). Gang violence was further extended to prisons as several states reported an increase in gang-related inmate violence.

1970

During the 1970s, between 6 and 12 million Mexicans settled in the US. The steadily increasing Hispanic/Latino population replaced white gangs in streets across New York City. Rivalry among gang members became rife in state prisons. Numerous Hispanic/Latino and black street gangs emerged from 1970-1972 to fight racial intimidation, school and residential segregation, extreme marginalization, and racial exclusion from mainstream city populations.

1980

The 1980s saw increased mobility and access to more dangerous weapons. Consequently, gangs became more dangerous and while previous instances of violence had involved bare knuckles or crude weapons, they now used guns. In addition to ease of gun access, the growing availability of vehicles led to an increase in drive-by shootings, a tact that had previously been done on foot. Gangs during this period consisted of both hard-core older members and younger persons. Most of the older members had had prison terms or had connections to prison inmates. Gangs also sold drugs, alcohol, and women, besides finding amusement in disturbing the peace through their large stereo systems that we’re able to blast music through a 6-mile range. Authorities also reported the emergence of hybrid gangs distinguished by racial/ethnic mixing.

1990

Gangs had access to more dangerous weapons, appeared to have less concern for territorial attachments, and used alcohol and drugs more widely while also taking part in drug trafficking on a wider scale than before. As a result, gang violence increased. Some gangs also became entrepreneurial and engaged in the multi-million cocaine business. In the late 1990s, they began to decline in number as the US government identified and deported not only undocumented citizens but also persons involved in gang activity.

2000

The government had already instituted several measures to curb gang activity, including strict border screening and the Grant Research Evaluation and Tracking (GREAT), an electronic system that tracked the movements of more than 2000 notorious gang members (Cureton, 2009). The government also enacted the Gang Violence and Juvenile Crime Prevention act of 1998. These measures reduced gang violence continued.

2012

Currently, most street gangs do not have organized command structures. However, individual gangs occupying sections of streets or flats still engage in isolated violent activities. Reports have also shown that gang membership now exists even in the military.

References

Cureton, S. R. (2009). Something Wicked This Way Comes: A Historical Account of Black Gangsterism Offers Wisdom and Warning for African American Leadership. Journal of Black Studies, 40, 347–361.

Pearson, G. (1983). Hooligan: A History of Reportable Fears. London: Macmillan.

Sante, L. (1991). Low Life: Lures and Snares of Old New York. New York: Vintage Books.

Sullivan, J. P. (2006). Maras morphing: Revisiting third generation gangs. Global Crime, August – November, 488–490.

Valdez, A. (2007). Gangs: A Guide to Understanding Street Gangs (5th ed.). San Clemente, CA: LawTech Publishing Co.

Essaywriters4me

Calculate The Price Of Your Paper

Pages
{{total || ""}}

Why Choose Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Freebies
Our FREE services
Every order comes with these awesome features.
Order Now
Money Back Guarantee
FREE Best essay writer across your subject
FREE Cover page and bibliography
FREE APA/MLA/Chicago formatting
FREE Free Revisions
FREE 24/7 customer support hotline and chat

Essays

Essay Writing Services

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Coursework

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.