Utilizing the methods designed by John Stuart Mill (pp. 287 – 290) answer the following questions. 1. To determine the effectiveness of an oil additive, a testing firm purchased two cars of the same make, year and model, and drove each a distance of 30,000 miles using the same kind of gasoline, the same kind of oil, the same driver, under the same road conditions. the oil in one engine included the additive, whereas the oil in the other engine did not. At the end of the test, the engines of both cars were dismantled, and it was found that the engine that contained the additive had less wear. The testing firm concluded that the oil additive caused reduced wear. Construct a table that supports this conclusion. Which one of Mill’s methods did the testing firm use? What sense of causality (necessary, sufficient, or necessary and sufficient) is involved in the conclusion? 2. The repair manager for a manufacturer of home computers noticed that a large number of units were being returned for repairs. The manager selected a sample of seven returned units and noticed that these units were distinguished by the following characteristics. Units 1 and 3 had type X circuitry and were shipped to coastal regions. Units 2 and 7 were sold to business customers, where manufactured in the Kansas City plant, and were shipped to coastal regions. Units 4 and 5 were used to play computer games and were manufactured in the Kansas City plant. Units 6 and 7 were shipped to large cities and had Type X circuitry. Unit 4 was shipped to a large coastal city. Units 2 and 3 were shipped to large cities. Unit 5 was shipped to a coastal region and had type X circuitry. Unit 3 was sold to a business customer who used it to play computer games. Unit 1 was used to play computer games and was manufactured in the Kansas City plant. Finally, Unit 6 was sold to a business customer in a coastal region. Among these six distinguishing characteristics, the manager concluded that salty air caused the computers to break down. Construct a table that supports this conclusion. Which one of Mill’s methods did the manufacturer use? What sense of causality (necessary, sufficient, or necessary and sufficient) is involved in the conclusion? 3. Mrs. Gonzalez sometimes has trouble sleeping. In order to determine the cause, she decided to take note of her pre-bedtime behavior over the course of a week. On Monday, she drank chamomile tea, had a later dinner, took a hot bath, read from a book, took a walk, and she slept well. On Tuesday she had a later dinner, read from a book, and slept poorly. On Wednesday she drank a glass of wine, got a massage, took a walk, and slept poorly. ON Thursday she had a late dinner, drank a glass of wine, read from a book, took a hot bath, got a massage, and slept well. On Friday she read from a book, drank chamomile tea, took a hot bath, and slept well. On Sunday she read from a book, took a hot bath, drank chamomile tea, and slept poorly. What can Mrs. Gonzalez conclude is the cause of sleeping well? Construct a table that supports this conclusion. Which one of Mill’s methods did Mrs. Wilkins use? What sense of causality (necessary, sufficient, or necessary and sufficient) is involved in the conclusion?
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