paper outline

Choose two of the six theories of race discussed by Mills and McPherson (the six are: racial realism, racial constructivism, racial subjectivism, racial relativism, racial error theory, and deflationary pluralism). Which of these two theories is better, and why? Be sure to consider and respond to at least one objection to your argument in this paper.

ethical egoism Outline
Ezekiel LaMont
Philosophy 101

The theory of ethical egoism argument for and against argument

  1. Intro paragraph 
  2. Hook
  1. Question suggesting that ethical egoism is the position that what is right is for someone to actively pursue whatever it is they want.”
  2. Explain the argument Rachel has for and against Ethical egoism.

Thesis: Ethical Egoism is unacceptably arbitrary for its lack of reasonable explanation of why a person’s interests are better than others, which is unjustifiable and discriminative.

  1. Body I
  1.  Topic Sentence – A major proponent of ethical egoism posits that the consequence of everyone looking after themselves is an overall better society.
  2. The argument in support of ethical egoism – The utilitarian argument for ethical egoism thus looks at the ideal overall consequence of the pursuit of self-interest as a totality of happiness and contentment for everyone. This is true because altruism is self-defeating, and individuals taking care of themselves will ultimately lead to overall benefit (Rachels & Rachels, 1986). The reason being only individuals has a better grasp of their needs and thus knows how to best cater to them.

III. Body II

  1. Topic Sentence – Rachels opposes ethical egoism for its unacceptably arbitrary character
  2. Expounding on the topic sentence – He likens ethical egoism to racism and sexism for their inherent unjustified discrimination (Rachels & Rachels, 1986).

Reconstruction of Rachels’ opposition to Ethical Egoism

  1. In discrimination, people are unjustifiably treated differently without grounded facts. Therefore, differences in treatment are only allowable when one has morally justifiable reasons to treat people differently.
  2. However, racism is arbitrary, for it lacks reasonable grounds to establish the moral differences amongst races
  3. Therefore, ethical egoism follows the same principle of unjustified discrimination.
  4. Ethical egoism positions the self against the world, forming two distinct groups where the self is superior to others (Rachels & Rachels, 1986).
  5. That is, one’s self-interest is more important than the interest of others. Such treatment is not morally justifiable for its lack of factual support.
  6. Indeed, it is not that an individual is more intelligent or able than others because it is through Rachel’s principle of Equal Treatment that ethical egoism supposedly violates.

Conclusion sentence – Consequently, like racism and sexism, ethical egoism falls into the unacceptably arbitrary grouping.

  1. Body III
  1. Topic Sentence – Rachels’ argument against ethical egoism is more sensible for its unanswered question on the importance of an individual over others.
  2. Argument
  3. Explanation III, supporting utilitarian argument

Reason: The problem with this approach is that initially, the interests of others are not an individual’s business. Still, in the outcome, the interest of others becomes a business for individuals.

  1. Conclusion – It is undeniable that individuals know themselves better and are better positioned at catering to their needs. Therefore, as Rachel argues, Ethical Egoism is unacceptably arbitrary for its lack of reasonable explanation of why a person’s interests are better than others, which is unjustifiable and discriminative.


This outline is really close, and it contains an excellent reconstruction of one of Rachels’s arguments against ethical egoism – however, you needed to flesh out both your first and third body paragraphs, especially your third (which lacked both your central argument and a clear discussion of, and response to, an objection to that central argument) in order to earn a “complete”. This assignment earns a “not yet,” so you should submit your writing assignment 7 at level 2 (outline). I strongly encourage you to send me a rough draft at least 24 hours beforehand or to discuss the assignment with me in advance so that you can be clear on what you need to do to earn a complete on that final writing assignment for this course.


You need to provide this explanation, in brief, for your reader in the outline rather than just say that you’ll provide it in the paper; otherwise, your outline won’t give your reader enough information about how your paper will actually go for them to provide useful feedback.












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