Post-Assessments In Professional Organizations

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Post-Assessments In Professional Organizations

Post-Assessments In Professional Organizations

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For this discussion, you will describe the role of assessments in professional organizations and discuss what steps organizations should take to ensure that abuses such as marginalization do not occur.
Consider the role of psychological tests in a professional workplace. Some argue that these types of tests should not be used at all in a work environment, while others argue that they can be used under the right circumstances.
In your initial post, describe one use of psychological assessments in professional organizations. Is the current practice fair to all individuals? Why or why not?

One reference to use is attached.

Leong, F. L., Park, Y. S., & Leach, M. M. (2013). Ethics in psychological testing and assessment. In K. F.  Geisinger, B. A. Bracken, J. F. Carlson, J. C. Hansen, N. R. Kuncel, S. P. Reise, … M. C. Rodriguez  (Eds.) , APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology, Vol. 1: Test theory and testing  and assessment in industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 265-282). Washington, DC, US:  American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14047-015

DOI: 10.1037/14047-015 APA Handbook of Testing and Assessment in Psychology: Vol. 1. Test Theory and Testing and Assessment in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, K. F. Geisinger (Editor-in-Chief) Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychological Association. All rights reserved.

C h a P t e r 1 5

EThICS In PSyCholoGICAl TESTInG And ASSESSmEnT

Frederick T. L. Leong, Yong Sue Park, and Mark M. Leach

Since their early origins in the use of intelligence tests for placement of schoolchildren through the recent attention to high-stakes educational testing, psychological testing and assessment have remained controversial and complex topics. This controversy underscores the importance of addressing the ethical challenges in the use and application of tests and assessment in psychology. In this chapter, we begin with an overview of the various professional ethical standards that guide our work in this area. This sec- tion is followed by a more detailed review and dis- cussion of the relevant sections of the American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2010). In this review, we also provide some guidance on the application of these ethical principles to the testing and assessment enterprise. Given the increasing cul- tural diversity of the U.S. population and the rise of globalization, we end with a discussion of some unique challenges in conducting testing and assess- ment cross-culturally.

There are also legal issues associated with testing and assessment in psychology, but these issues are not covered in this chapter because they are addressed elsewhere in this handbook (see Chapter 28, this volume, and Volume 2, Chapters 6 and 34). It is interesting to note that the U.S. Office for Human Research Protections highlights the differ- ences between ethical principles and regulatory guidelines. Ethical principles refers to ethical values and principles aimed at the protection of human participants in research, whereas regulatory guide- lines refers to a list of procedural dos and don’ts

(“Distinguishing Statements of Ethical Principles and Regulatory Guidelines,” 2011). The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the ethical values and prin- ciples in professional psychology as they pertain to testing and assessment.

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

Ethics is a broad term that encompasses the com- monly endorsed values of professional psychology (Groth-Marnat, 2006) and is the basis for ethics codes—rules and guidelines on appropriate behav- iors for the purpose of protecting the public and the profession (Meara, Schmidt, & Day, 1996). In the United States, three major sources of ethics codes related to psychological testing and assessments are available: (a) the Standards for Education and Psycho- logical Testing (American Educational Research Association [AERA], APA, & National Council on Measurement in Education [NCME], 1999), (b) the Guidelines for Computer-Based Tests and Interpreta- tions (APA Committee on Professional Standards & Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment, 1986), and (c) the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2010).

Standards for Education and Psychological Testing In 1985, AERA, APA, and NCME collaborated to develop the Standards for Education and Psychological Testing—a set of standards pertaining to professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. The

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Standards is organized in three sections: (a) Test Construction, Evaluation, and Documentation; (b) Fairness in Testing; and (c) Testing Applications. The Standards document was significantly revised in 1999 to contain a greater number of standards and updated to reflect changes in law and measurement trends, increased attention to diversity issues, and information on new tests and new uses of existing tests (AERA et al., 1999). An in-depth review of the Standards can be found in Chapter 13 of this volume.

Guidelines for Computer-Based Tests and Interpretations With the increased use of, and concern for the lack of regulation of, psychological computer-based test- ing (CBT), APA’s Committee on Professional Stan- dards and Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment (1986) published the Guidelines for Computer-Based Tests and Interpretations, a set of 31 guidelines aimed at both test developers, to ensure the development of quality CBT products, and end users of these products, to ensure proper adminis- tration and interpretation of computer-based psy- chological tests (Schoenfeldt, 1989). More recently, the International Test Commission gave increased attention to CBT in its own set of CBT guidelines, adopted in 2005, titled the International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing. Similar to the objectives of the Guidelines for Computer-Based Tests and Interpretations, the general aim of the International Test Commission guidelines is to recommend standards for good practices for development and use of CBTs. The International Test Commission guidelines are organized along the following recommendations: (a) Give due regard to the technological issues in computer-based and Internet testing, (b) attend to quality issues in CBT and Internet testing, (c) provide appropriate levels of control over CBT and Internet testing, and (d) make appropriate provision for security and safe- guarding privacy in CBT and Internet testing.

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