DUE: APRIL 17, 2022


**Please read the guidelines in their entirety to avoid getting points taken off your paper**

Each student will be required to write a term paper that contains five full pages (top line of the page through the last line at the bottom of the pages) plus a title page and reference page/pages for a minimum of 7 total pages.  Your term paper must describe psychological disorder from a biopsychosocial perspective. Students will be required to describe the disorder in terms of symptoms, describe biological, psychological, and social causes of the disorder and include information about treatment.

  • Students will select one psychological disorder when completing Thinking Assignment 1. You selected one of the following topics:
    • schizophrenia spectrum disorder
    • bipolar I disorder
    • Bipolar II disorder
    • major depressive disorder
    • separation anxiety disorder
    • specific phobia
    • panic disorder
    • hording disorder
    • reactive attachment disorder
    • post-traumatic stress disorder
    • pica in children
    • pica in adults
    • anorexia nervosa
    • bulimia nervosa
    • erectile disorder
    • female orgasmic disorder
    • intermittent explosive disorder
    • alcohol-related disorders
    • opioid-related disorders
    • cluster A personality disorders (you must pick one: paranoid personality, schizoid personality, schizotypal personality)
  • Symptoms may be described in terms of emotional symptoms, cognitive symptoms, behavioral symptoms, somatic symptoms, and impairment in social and occupational functioning.
    • Biological explanations may include the following: Brain structure and function, genetics, hormones, evolution/natural selection, neurotransmitters (oversupply, under supply, dysfunction)
    • Psychological explanations may include the following: Learning, memory, personality traits, cognition (thought patterns), trauma/stress, emotion/mood
    • Sociocultural explanations may include the following: Gender roles, socioeconomic status, locations (city or rural), school/education, cultural values, poverty
  • Treatment may include medications, cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy, group therapy, client centered therapy

You will use the same five scholarly (peer reviewed) journal articles that you used when completing the Thinking Assignment 1 (Annotated Bibliography).

NOTE: Books and Websites of any kind are not allowed for this class.

The paper must be formatted entirely in APA formatting following the rules of the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This includes a title page and reference page/pages with APA formatted references, in-text citations, 12 point Times New Roman font or one of the other fonts permitted by the APA Style (or as determined by your instructor), 1 inch margins on all sides. A minimum of five scholarly (peer reviewed) journal articles must be used to research the information for the paper.

The paper must be written in the student’s own words. The paper may not contain more than two direct quotes. Each quote must be no more than one full sentence.

Each paper will be analyzed using either a Safe Assign or a TurnItIn dropbox. The paper’s originality score must at 25% or lower. Any paper that scores higher than 25% on the originality report will receive a score of a zero. Remember that if you turn in your paper early and your originality score is too high you can revise and resubmit until the due date has passed.

While personal knowledge/experience may have lead you to select a specific disorder, please do not include personal stories or experiences. This paper must utilize research studies that have studied thousands of individuals.

PTSD                                                                                                                                                       1


Post-traumatic stress disorder

Keionti Prather

West Georgia Technical College

PSYCH 1101 41347

Mr. W. Edgar Mcgee

February 20, 2022





















PTSD                                                                                                                                                       2



Moukhtar, Nada Mohamad; Almutairi, Ziyad Mohammed; Jamjoom, Refal Hamad; Alamri, Saad Mahdi; Alamry, Abdullah Mahdi; Asiri, Mohammed Ahmed; Alshahrani, Saeed Saad; Almutairi, Abdullah Muteb; Al Zaher, Abdulmajeed Zaher; Aloudah, Khalid Mohammed; Mahzari, Sarah Mohammed Jubran

Pharmacophore — November 2021

In this article the author discusses what post-traumatic stress disorder is. It gives an in-depth description of what the disorder is and how it affects people and their families. Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people who have suffered psychological or psychical trauma. In this article it also states that non-medical treatments should be the first approach when dealing with post-traumatic stress disorder. It talks about the risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. This article also suggests that going to counseling and talking about your trauma is a good way to heal. It also states that if you were to need medications for your trauma to seek professional help before doing so.


Social cognition in post‐traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review.

Couette, Maryline; Mouchabac, Stéphane; Bourla, Alexis; Nuss, Philippe; Ferreri, Florian

British Journal of Clinical Psychology — June 2020

This article refers to patients that deal with post-traumatic stress disorder. It explains how the disorder affects their social and emotional abilities. It also shares the results suggested by the effective and cognitive aspect. This article states that people with post-traumatic stress disorder have an altered perception of basic emotional expressions whether it is an expression of threat or happiness. It also gives “practitioner points” and says that post-traumatic stress disorder is no longer regarded as a type of anxiety disorder, but as part of a new category in the DSM-5. According to the article “post-traumatic stress disorder is common psychiatric condition that occurs after either direct (combat, assault, sexual violence, natural disaster, motor vehicle accident, or serious injury)”. PTSD distresses memories and dreams that occurred within the traumatic event.








PTSD                                                                                                                                                       3


Daily variation in sleep characteristics in individuals with and without post traumatic stress disorder.

Biggs, Quinn M.; Ursano, Robert J.; Wang, Jing; Wynn, Gary H.; Amin, Rohul; Fullerton, Carol S.

BMC Psychiatry — June 5, 2021

This article explains how post-traumatic stress disorder influences your sleep. It states that “sleep disturbances are common in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. It explains the research that was discovered by examining the night-to-night and weekday versus variation in sleep duration, sleep quality, trouble falling asleep, and difficulty staying asleep in patients that have post-traumatic stress disorder and those who do not. The research also included self-reports and the sleep characteristics of 15 days. The results of the research concluded that those who suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder had a shorter sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, and trouble falling asleep and staying up as opposed to those who did not suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.


An investigation into the bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal ideation: A nine year study

Schafer, Katherine Musacchio; Clancy, Kevin J.; Joiner, Thomas

Journal of Anxiety Disorders — January 2022

In this article, it takes a look at how post-traumatic stress disorder plays a role in suicide victims. Post-traumatic stress disorder is one of the many reasons someone can choose to take their own life. Many people with the disorder do not know how to seek help. This article refers to a nine-year study about patients who participated in a study that would compare post-traumatic stress disorder victims and suicide victims. The participants were interviewed between 1995 and 1998 and again between the years 2004 and 2008. It states that post-traumatic stress disorder is a leading factor in suicide in adolescents.






PTSD                                                                                                                                                       4



Adverse childhood experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and self-reported stress among traditional and nontraditional college students.

Kalmakis, Karen A.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Kent, Nicole; Meyer, Jerrold S.

Journal of American College Health — May 2020

This article investigates the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder, and self-reported-reported stress among college students. The research of this article was conducted by a total of 236 undergraduate students that participated in the research. According to the article individuals who report post-traumatic stress disorder following their childhood trauma were more than likely to perceive higher levels of stress later in their life. Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized as a trauma, or stress-related disorder, that typically happens through childhood or after a horrific and traumatic event. The article states the neglect in children, sexual abuse, household dysfunction, are associated with a greater post-traumatic stress disorder level.




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